Egzekucja alimentów z zagranicy

„Dwa lata temu Sąd Rejonowy zasądził od matki dziecka na rzecz mojego małoletniego syna alimenty w kwocie 700,00 zł. Matka dziecka rok temu przeprowadziła się za granicę i od tego czasu nie utrzymuje ani kontaktu z dzieckiem ani nie łoży na jego utrzymanie. Czy mam możliwość egzekwowania w jakiś sposób zaległych alimentów, a jeśli tak, to w jaki?”.

Jak najbardziej możliwa jest egzekucja alimentów Z ZAGRANICY.

Zaległość alimentacyjna w momencie składania wniosku musi wynosić co najmniej 3 miesiące.

Sposób egzekucji zależy od tego czy RODZIC (dłużnik) przebywa NA TERYTORIUM UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ, czy POZA nim. Procedury egzekwowania alimentów uregulowane są zarówno w konwencjach międzynarodowych, jak i umowach wzajemnych między Polską i innymi państwami.

Jeżeli dłużnik przebywa na terytorium Unii Europejskiej (za wyjątkiem Danii!) to zastosowanie będzie miało Rozporządzenie Rady (WE) nr 4/2009 z dnia 18 grudnia 2008 r. w sprawie jurysdykcji, prawa właściwego, uznawania i wykonywania orzeczeń oraz współpracy w zakresie zobowiązań alimentacyjnych. Egzekucję prowadzi się w kraju Unii Europejskiej, w którym dłużnik alimentacyjny przebywa. Egzekucja zostaje wszczęta na wniosek (formularz – załącznik VI do rozporządzenia – dostępny też w sądzie lub na stronie internetowej sądu; wypełnić należy część B wniosku w polskiej wersji językowej oraz wersję w języku urzędowym kraju, w którym przebywa dłużnik).

Do w/w wniosku należy dołączyć następujące dokumenty:

  1. pełnomocnictwo upoważniające organ zagraniczny do prowadzenia egzekucji świadczeń alimentacyjnych (dotyczy Czech, Niemiec, Francji),
  2. odpis wyroku sądu polskiego zasądzającego alimenty od zobowiązanego na rzecz małoletniego dziecka, z poświadczeniem prawomocności i wykonalności oraz wyciąg z tego orzeczenia (formularz – załącznik I lub II rozporządzenia) w języku polskim i języku urzędowym kraju, w którym przebywa dłużnik,
  3. oryginał zupełnego odpisu aktu urodzenia dziecka (gdy dziecko pochodzi ze związku pozamałżeńskiego),
  4. oryginał skróconego odpisu aktu urodzenia dziecka (gdy dziecko pochodzi ze związku małżeńskiego),
  5. szczegółowy wykaz zaległości alimentacyjnych (sporządzony własnoręcznie przez wierzyciela, czyli RODZICA bezpośrednio sprawującego pieczę nad dzieckiem, z rozbiciem na lata i miesiące),
  6. informację dotyczącą konta bankowego (nazwę, adres banku, numer konta),
  7. podanie wierzyciela o przyjęciu wniosku.

Wszystkie wyżej wymienione dokumenty wraz z wnioskiem składa się do PREZESA SĄDU OKRĘGOWEGO właściwego ze względu na swoje miejsca zamieszkania.

Wniosek nie podlega opłacie. Opłacie podlega natomiast tłumaczenie dokumentów i wydanie odpisów dokumentów urzędowych.

WAŻNE: NALEŻY ZNAĆ ADRES MIEJSCA ZAMIESZKANIA DŁUŻNIKA ZA GRANICĄ, PONIEWAŻ WNIOSEK ZOSTANIE SKIEROWANY WŁAŚNIE DO SĄDU MIEJSCA ZAMIESZKANIA DŁUŻNIKA! JEŻELI ADRES MIEJSCA ZAMIESZKANIA DŁUŻNIKA NIE JEST ZNANY, NALEŻY DODATKOWO ZŁOŻYĆ WNIOSEK O POSZUKIWANIE ZOBOWIĄZANEGO DO PŁACENIA ALIMENTÓW.

Jeżeli zaś dłużnik alimentacyjny przebywa poza terytorium Unii Europejskiej to zastosowanie ma Konwencja Nowojorska z dnia 20 czerwca 1956 r. o dochodzeniu roszczeń alimentacyjnych za granicą. Wniosek należy złożyć do Prezesa Sądu Okręgowego właściwego ze względu na swoje miejsca zamieszkania. Wniosek taki składa się na specjalnym formularzu (znajduje się on w sądzie lub na stronie internetowej sądu) wraz z załącznikami.

Do w/w wniosku należy dołączyć następujące dokumenty:

  1. wyliczenie zaległości alimentacyjnych podpisane przez Wnioskodawcę (sporządzony własnoręcznie przez wierzyciela, czyli RODZICA bezpośrednio sprawującego pieczę nad dzieckiem, z rozbiciem na lata i miesiące),
  2. odpis wyroku zasądzającego alimenty od zobowiązanego na rzecz małoletniego dziecka,
  3. oryginał zupełnego odpisu aktu urodzenia dziecka (gdy dziecko pochodzi ze związku pozamałżeńskiego),
  4. oryginał skróconego odpisu aktu urodzenia dziecka (gdy dziecko pochodzi ze związku małżeńskiego),
  5. jeżeli dziecko ma więcej niż 16 lat – zaświadczenie o kontynuowaniu nauki,
  6. pełnomocnictwo udzielone przez Wnioskodawcę organowi przyjmującemu w państwie obcym z podpisem poświadczonym przez notariusza,
  7. informację o adresie miejsca zamieszkania dłużnika celem ustalenia właściwości sądu zagranicznego, w którym będzie toczyła się sprawa.

Wnioski, o których mowa powyżej wraz z załącznikami sąd polski przesyła do właściwego organu w państwie, w którym przebywa dłużnik.

W sprawie wniosku o dochodzenie roszczeń alimentacyjnych od dłużnika zamieszkałego w USA i w Kanadzie więcej tutaj.

Warto też dodać, że oprócz wymienionych Konwencji istnieje możliwość dochodzenia alimentów w trybie umów dwustronnych w przypadku takich krajów jak: Algieria, Ukraina, Tunezja i Rosja.

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