Dziedziczenie w przypadku rozwodu, separacji i po zmarłym po małżonku

Pomiędzy mną a żoną dochodzi do ciągłych kłótni i nieporozumień, od kilku miesięcy żyjemy w separacji, jednakże chciałbym złożyć pozew o rozwód. Zastanawia mnie przede wszystkim jak wygląda dziedziczenie w przypadku rozwodu, a jak w przypadku separacji?”.

Są trzy sytuację, w których MAŁŻONEK NIE DZIEDZICZY PO DRUGIM MAŁŻONKU. A mianowicie wtedy, gdy:

  1. małżeństwo zostało rozwiązane przez rozwód,
  2. prawomocnym wyrokiem Sądu orzeczono separację,
  3. spadkodawca wystąpił o rozwód lub separację z żądaniem orzeczenia winy w rozkładzie pożycia małżeńskiego drugiego małżonka, ZMARŁ w trakcie procesu a żądanie okazało się uzasadnione.

Pozostając przy kwestii dziedziczenia po zmarłym małżonku odnieść należy się do przepisu art. 931 § 1 kodeksu cywilnego, zgodnie z którym w pierwszej kolejności powołane są do spadku dzieci spadkodawcy oraz jego małżonek. Dziedziczą oni w częściach równych. Jednakże część przypadająca małżonkowi nie może być mniejsza niż jedna czwarta całości spadku.

WARUNKIEM KONIECZNYM dziedziczenia małżonka jest POZOSTAWANIE W ZWIĄZKU MAŁŻEŃSKIM ze spadkodawcą do chwili otwarcia spadku (czyli do chwili śmierci spadkodawcy), przy czym to następstwo nie jest zależne od istnienia faktycznych więzi między małżonkami, wspólnego zamieszkiwania i prowadzenia gospodarstwa domowego, czy też istniejącego między nimi ustroju majątkowego. 

Zwrócić jednak uwagę należy, iż zgodnie z art. 940 k.c. istnieje MOŻLIWOŚĆ WYŁĄCZENIA MAŁŻONKA OD DZIEDZICZENIA, które to następuje na mocy orzeczenia Sądu.

Małżonek pozostający w związku małżeńskim ze spadkodawcą do chwili otwarcia spadku może zostać wyłączony od dziedziczenia, jeżeli spadkodawca wystąpił o orzeczenie rozwodu lub separacji z winy małżonka żyjącego, a żądanie to było uzasadnione (żądanie takie musi być zawarte w pozwie lub zgłoszone przez spadkodawcę na podstawie art. 439 k.p.c., gdy występuje on w roli pozwanego).

Z powództwem o wyłączenie małżonka od dziedziczenia MOŻE WYSTĄPIĆ KTÓRYKOLWIEK Z POZOSTAŁYCH SPADKOBIERCÓW USTAWOWYCH powołanych do dziedziczenia w zbiegu z małżonkiem w terminie sześciu miesięcy od dnia, w którym spadkobierca dowiedział się o otwarciu spadku, nie później jednak niż w rok od otwarcia spadku.

Postępowanie rozwodowe lub separacyjne może więc wywrzeć wpływ na dziedziczenie nawet wówczas, gdy nie zostało zakończone prawomocnym orzeczeniem sądowym. Oczywiście w razie śmierci jednego z małżonków proces rozwodowy lub separacyjny zostaje umorzony na podstawie art. 444 k.p.c.

Oczywiście powyższy artykuł dotyczy sytuacji, w której spadkodawca nie pozostawił testamentu!

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