Choroba psychiczna małżonka – rozwód czy unieważnienie małżeństwa?

„Od ponad 4 lat pozostaję w związku małżeńskim. Kilka tygodni temu dowiedziałem się, że moja małżonka zataiła przede mną istnienie choroby psychicznej. Czy w takiej sytuacji powinienem żądać rozwodu czy unieważnienia małżeństwa?”.

Rozwód a unieważnienie małżeństwa to dwa, zupełnie odmienne postępowania. Rządzą się one własnymi regułami i choć pozornie zmierzają do tego samego rezultatu, to konsekwencje wynikające z rozwodu są zupełnie inne niż konsekwencje płynące z unieważnienia małżeństwa.

Orzeczenie rozwodu zgodnie z prawem jest możliwe, jeżeli między małżonkami nastąpił zupełny i trwały rozkład pożycia. Ustawodawca nie przewidział zamkniętego katalogu przyczyn uzasadniających rozwód, a więc może on nastąpić z różnych powodów m.in. z powodu choroby psychicznej współmałżonka.

Choroba psychiczna jako przesłanka uzasadniająca rozwiązanie małżeństwa poprzez rozwód winna pojawić się W TRAKCIE TRWANIA MAŁŻEŃSTWA (a nie wcześniej!) lub gdy istniała przed zawarciem związku małżeńskiego, ale ustąpiła przed wydaniem wyroku rozwodowego. Winna być ona szczegółowo oceniana i badana przez sąd, gdyż z całą pewnością nie stanowi przyczyny, która niejako automatycznie przesądza o zasadności wniesionego pozwu rozwodowego. Zgodnie z orzecznictwem, orzeczenia rozwodu można dochodzić jedynie w sytuacji, gdy choroba psychiczna jednego z małżonków stała się powodem rozkładu pożycia małżeńskiego.

Odnosząc się zaś do kwestii unieważnienia małżeństwa zauważyć należy, iż jest to instytucja wyjątkowa a możliwość jej zastosowania jest ograniczona tylko do kilku przypadków wskazanych w przepisach.

W myśl art. 12 § 1 Kodeksu rodzinnego i opiekuńczego NIE MOŻE zawrzeć małżeństwa osoba dotknięta chorobą psychiczną albo niedorozwojem umysłowym. Jeżeli jednak stan zdrowia lub umysłu takiej osoby nie zagraża małżeństwu ani zdrowiu przyszłego potomstwa i jeżeli osoba ta nie została ubezwłasnowolniona całkowicie, sąd MOŻE jej zezwolić na zawarcie małżeństwa. Zatem konieczny warunek: ZGODA SĄDU!

W sytuacji, gdy wspomniane formalności nie zostały zachowane, każdy z małżonków może żądać z tego powodu unieważnienia małżeństwa. Chwilą, w której należy dokonać oceny stanu zdrowia małżonka, jest moment zawarcia związku małżeńskiego. Oznacza to, że jeżeli małżonek zapadł na chorobę psychiczną w trakcie małżeństwa, natomiast w chwili ślubu był zdrowy, to NIE STANOWI to podstawy do ubiegania się o unieważnienie małżeństwa.

Powyższe potwierdza wyrok Sądu Najwyższego z dnia 13 marca 1974 r., sygn. akt: II CR 42/74, w którym to Sąd stwierdził, że: Unieważnienie małżeństwa na podstawie art. 12 KRO może nastąpić tylko w wypadku choroby psychicznej lub niedorozwoju umysłowego, a nie innego rodzaju zaburzeń psychicznych. (…) okoliczność, że pozwana już w dacie zawierania małżeństwa była osobą o pewnych predyspozycjach schizofrenicznych i ewentualnie cierpiała na pewne zaburzenia psychiczne, nie wystarczy do unieważnienia małżeństwa, skoro nie stwierdzono stanowczo istnienia choroby psychicznej”.

Zakaz zawarcia małżeństwa z powodu choroby psychicznej nie zostaje wyłączony nawet wówczas, gdy osoba wstępująca w związek małżeński ma dostateczne rozeznanie co do podejmowanych czynności, a więc, gdy jej choroba jest w fazie remisji. Natomiast pojęcie „zagrożenia zdrowia przyszłego potomstwa”, zgodnie z wyrokiem Sądu Najwyższego z dnia 29 grudnia 1978 r., sygn. akt II CR 475/78, należy pojmować w tym sensie, że dotyczy ono nie tylko kwestii możliwości przekazania choroby psychicznej ewentualnemu potomstwu, ale także zagadnienia, czy stan psychiczny określonej osoby nie wyłącza prawidłowego, zgodnego z przyjętymi zasadami, wychowania dzieci i w ogóle wykonywania władzy rodzicielskiej.

Mimo, iż przepisy ustawy są dość restrykcyjne i generalnie statuują zasadę, że osoba cierpiąca z powodu choroby psychicznej lub niedorozwoju umysłowego nie może zawrzeć małżeństwa, to jednak nie trudno znaleźć w orzecznictwie przypadki, w których sąd oddalił powództwo o unieważnienie małżeństwa z powodu choroby psychicznej. Przykładem takiego orzeczenia jest wyrok Sądu Najwyższego z dnia 4 lutego 1985 r., sygn. akt: IV CR 557/84, w którym Sąd stwierdził, że Wyjątkowo, gdy zachodzą szczególne okoliczności (np. długotrwałe i prawidłowe funkcjonowanie małżeństwa oraz pochodzenie z małżeństwa zdrowych, dorosłych dzieci) zasady współżycia społecznego mogą przemawiać za oddaleniem powództwa o unieważnienie małżeństwa z powodu choroby psychicznej (art. 5 k.c.)”. Powyższe stanowisko sądu zdaje się zasadnym, bowiem nie sposób wyrazić poparcia dla wniosku o unieważnienie małżeństwa, które przez wiele lat funkcjonowało w sposób normalny, strony osiągały porozumienie, miały zdrowe dzieci, które wychowały i wykształciły. Fakt, że chory psychicznie małżonek spełniał się jako rodzic i małżonek przez wiele lat, wykonując w sposób właściwy obowiązki małżeńskie świadczy o tym, że stan jego zdrowia i umysłu w chwili zawierania związku małżeńskiego nie zagrażał małżeństwu ani zdrowiu przyszłego potomstwa, co wypełniałoby przesłanki do udzielenia przez sąd zgody na zawarcie małżeństwa.

Na chorobę psychiczną nie można powoływać się również wtedy, gdy strony – za zgodą sądu – zawarły małżeństwo, mimo choroby małżonka. Unieważnienie małżeństwa nie wchodzi również w grę, gdy choroba psychiczna małżonka ustanie. Nawet więc, jeśli w chwili zawarcia małżeństwa małżonek był chory psychicznie i nie uzyskał zgody sądu na małżeństwo, to sąd nie zezwoli na unieważnienie małżeństwa, jeśli w chwili rozstrzygania sprawy w sądzie (czyli w chwili orzekania) małżonek nie jest już chory.

Warto zwrócić uwagę również na fakt, iż przy unieważnieniu małżeństwa sąd orzeka także, czy i który z małżonków zawarł małżeństwo w tzw. „złej wierze”. Za będącego w złej wierze uważa się tego małżonka, który w chwili zawarcia małżeństwa wiedział o okoliczności stanowiącej podstawę jego unieważnienia.

W przeciwieństwie do małżeństwa, które zostało rozwiązane poprzez rozwód – małżeństwo, które zostało unieważnione traktowane jest tak, jakby w ogóle nie zostało zawarte, a więc z chwilą jego unieważnienia ustaje powinowactwo (np. teściowa przestaje być teściową, a szwagier szwagrem itd), a małżonek, który w związku ze ślubem zmienił nazwisko, wraca do nazwiska noszonego przed ślubem. Wyrok unieważniający małżeństwo działa więc wstecz, a jedyny wyjątek od tej zasady ustawodawca przewidział w zakresie stosunku małżonków do wspólnych małoletnich dzieci oraz w zakresie stosunków majątkowych, co oznacza, że:

Konsekwencje na tym polu są zatem takie same jak w przypadku rozwodu!

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174 thoughts on “Choroba psychiczna małżonka – rozwód czy unieważnienie małżeństwa?

  1. Kontrowersyjny temat, ale dobrze że poruszony. Choroba psychiczna w małżeństwie jest niejednokrotnie powodem rozwiązania pożycia małżeńskiego. Zastanawiające jest jednak to czy rozwój z tego powodu jest etyczne? W końcu przysięga małżeńska odnosi się nie tylko do sytuacji w zdrowiu, ale również i w chorobie…

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